What’s and How’s about representations:

  • What is the represented object?
  • How, using what codes?
  • How it looks ‘true’ or ‘natural’ or ‘commonsense’?
  • What is on the foreground and on the background?
  • Who represent it and whose interests reflects?
  • Who is the target and how you know?
  • What this representation means to you?


[…] ‘denotation is what is photographed, connotation is how it is photographed’ (Fiske 1982, 91). However, in photography, denotation is foregrounded at the expense of connotation. The photographic signifier seems to be virtually identical with its signified, and the photograph appears to be a ‘natural sign’ produced without the intervention of a code (Hall 1980, 132).


Can we say that denotation is just one of the connotations of a sign?




Media Representation, David Chandler

Semiotics for Beginners, David Chandler


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